Sterilization (female or male)

Surgical sterilization is irreversible for both men and women, so it must be considered thoroughly in any case. In case of both genders, this method is only recommended for those who are absolutely sure that they do not want to have (more) children. Although both methods are highly safe in terms of contraception, pregnancy can develop in some cases even after sterilization is performed (the Pearl Index of sterilization is 0.1 for males and 0.5 for females). When women are sterilized, the fallopian tubes are made impervious in general anaesthesia. A sterilization surgery can lead to early menopause, psychic problems, and stronger or irregular menstruation. Modern, long-term but reversible contraception methods offering similar levels of safety, such as intrauterine contraception, are a real alternative of female sterilization today. Male sterilization is less complicated. Spermatic cords are cut through in local anaesthesia, so ejaculates will not contain sperms subsequently. This is an outpatient intervention generally not requiring hospitalization.